Journal Articles

Bleakley, A., Rough, D., Edwards, J., Doyle, P., Dumbleton, O., Clark, L., … & Cowan, B. R. (2021). . . Bridging social distance during social distancing: exploring social talk and remote collegiality in video conferencing. Human–Computer Interaction, 1-29.

Garaialde, D., Bowers, C. P., Pinder, C., Shah, P., Parashar, S., Clark, L. & Cowan, B. (2020). Quantifying the Impact of Making and Breaking Interface Habits. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.

Clark, L., Doyle, P., Garaialde, D., Gilmartin, E., Schlögl, S. Edlund, J., Aylett, M. … Cowan, B. (2019). The State of Speech in HCI: Trends, Themes, and Challenges. Interacting with Computers.

Murad, C., Munteanu, C., Cowan, B.R. & Clark, L. (2019). Revolution or Evolution? Speech interaction and HCI Design Guidelines. IEEE Pervasive Special Issue on Conversational User Interfaces. Best 2019 Paper Award.

Adolphs, S., Clark, L., Dörnyei, Z., Glover, T., Henry, A., Muir, C., … & Valstar, M. (2018). Digital innovations in L2 motivation: Harnessing the power of the Ideal L2 Self. System78, 173-185.

Large, D. R., Clark, L., Quandt, A., Burnett, G., & Skrypchuk, L. (2017). Steering the conversation: a linguistic exploration of natural language interactions with a digital assistant during simulated driving. Applied Ergonomics, 63, 53-61.

Clark, L., Ofemile, A., Adolphs, S., & Rodden, T. (2016). A multimodal approach to assessing user experiences with agent helpers. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS), 6(4), 29.

Book Chapters & Reports

Wu, Y., Lindsay, S., Evans, L., Porcheron, M., Clark, L., & Jones, R. (2021). Enabling Digital First: A Case Study of Sight-Impaired Users in Wales. 

Clark, L., Ofemile, A. Cowan, B.R. (2021). Exploring verbal uncanny valley effects with vague language in computer speech. Voice Attractiveness: Studies on Sexy, Likable and Charismatic Speakers. Springer.

Aylett, M., Clark, L., Cowan, B.R. & Torre, I. (2021). Building and Designing Expressive Speech Synthesis. ACM Handbook on Socially Interactive Agents.

Hauff, C., Azzopardi, L., Clark, L., Capra, R. & Arguello, J. (2020). Evaluating Conversational Search Systems. In Anand, A., Cavedon, L., Joho, H., Sanderson, M. & Stein, B. (Eds.), Conversational Search (Dagstuhl Seminar 19461). Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik.

Conference Proceedings

Bleakley, A., Rough, D., Roper, A., Lindsay, S., Porcheron, M., Lee, M., … & Clark, L. (2022). Exploring Smart Speaker User Experience for People who Stammer. ASSETS 2022.

Baxter, M., Bleakley, A., Edwards, J., Clark, L., Cowan, B. R., & Williamson, J. R. (2021). “You, Move There!”: Investigating the Impact of Feedback on Voice Control in Virtual Environments. CUI 2021.

Murad, C., Munteanu, C., R. Cowan, B., & Clark, L. (2021). Finding a New Voice: Transitioning Designers from GUI to VUI Design. CUI 2021.

Edwards, J., Clark, L., & Perrone, A. (2021). LGBTQ-AI? Exploring Expressions of Gender and Sexual Orientation in Chatbots. CUI 2021.

Doyle, P., Clark, L. & Cowan, B. (2021). What Do We See in Them? Identifying Dimensions of Partner Models for Speech Interfaces Using a Psychological Approach. CHI 2021.

Wu, Y., Rough, D., Bleakley, A., Edwards, J., Cooney, O., Doyle, P., Clark, L. & Cowan, B. (2020). See what I’m saying? Comparing Intelligent Personal Assistant use for native and non-native language speakers. Mobile HCI 2020.

Clark, L., Cowan, B., Roper, A., Lindsay, S. & Sheers, O. (2020). Speech diversity and speech interfaces – considering an inclusive future through stammering. CUI 2020.

Wu, Y., Edwards, J., Cooney, O., Bleakley, A., Doyle, P., Clark, L., … & Cowan, B. (2020). Mental workload and language production in native and non-native speaker interactions with intelligent personal assistants. CUI 2020. Best paper.

Doyle, P., Edwards, J., Dumbleton, O., Clark, L. & Cowan, B.R. (2019). Mapping Perceptions of Humanness in Intelligent Personal Assistant Interaction. Mobile HCI 2019.

Large, D.R., Burnett, G., & Clark, L. (2019). Lessons from Oz: Design Guidelines for Automotive Conversational User Interfaces. AutoUI 2019.

Cowan, B.R., Doyle, P., Edwards, J., Garaialde, D., Hayes-Brady, A., Branigan, H.P., Cabral, J. & Clark, L. (2019). What’s in an accent? The impact of accented synthetic speech on lexical choice in human-machine dialogue. CUI 2019.

Large, D., Clark, L., Burnett, G., Harrington, K., Luton, J., Thomas, P. & Bennett, P. (2019). “It’s Small Talk, Jim, But Not as We Know It.” Engendering Trust through Human-Agent Conversation in an Autonomous, Self-Driving Car. CUI 2019.

Edwards, J., Liu, H., Zhou, T., Gould, S., Clark, L., Doyle, P. & Cowan, B. (2019). Multitasking with Alexa: How Using Intelligent Personal Assistants Impacts Language-based Primary Task Performance. CUI 2019.

Aylett, M., Cowan, B.R. & Clark, L. (2019). Siri, Echo and Performance: You have to Suffer Darling.CHI 2019 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Glasgow, UK. 

*Bonus video of our alt.CHI performance featuring Gunter Schweck, Francis Cumbernauld & HK-47* – Courtesy of Christine Murad

Clark, L., Pantidi, N., Cooney, O., Doyle, P., Garaialde, D., Edwards, J., Spillane B. … Cowan, B.R. (2019). What Makes a Good Conversation? Challenges in Designing Truly Conversational Agents. CHI 2019 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Glasgow, UK. Honourable Mention.

Murad, C., Munteanu, C., Clark, L., & Cowan, B. R. (2018). Design guidelines for hands-free speech interaction. Mobile HCI 2018 (pp. 269-276). ACM.

Clark, L. (2018). Social Boundaries of Appropriate Speech in HCI: A Politeness Perspective. British HCI 2018.

Clark, L., Cabral, J. & Cowan, B. (2018). The CogSIS Project: Examining the Cognitive Effects of Speech Interface Synthesis. British HCI 2018.

Clark, L. M. H., Bachour, K., Ofemile, A., Adolphs, S., & Rodden, T. (2014). Potential of imprecision: exploring vague language in agent instructors. HAI 2014 (pp. 339-344). ACM.


Research suggests ways voice assistants could accommodate non-native English speakers (2020). Kyle Wiggers, VentureBeat.

À quand une discussion réelle avec un robot? (2020). Annie Labrecque, Québec Science.

Humans are starting to respect machines at work (2020). Tonya Hall & ZDNet.

Why do we gender AI? Voice tech firms move to be more inclusive (2020). The Guardian.

Smart speakers: Are you being fooled as technology advances? (2019). BBC Wales News.

Sounding too human (2019). Issue 23 of Inch Magazine.

Voice assistant technology is in danger of trying to be too human (2019). The Conversation.

Speech Technology and Synthesis with Leigh Clark & Benjamin R. Cowan (2019). Irish Tech News.


Porcheron, M., Clark, L., Jones, M., Candello, H., Cowan, B.R., Murad, C., Sin, J., … & Kaye, J. (2020). CUI@CSCW: Collaborating through Conversational User Interfaces. CSCW 2020 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing, Virtual.  

Candello, H., Munteanu, C., Clark, L., Sin, J., Torres, M. I., Porcheron, M., … & Murad, C. (2020, April). CUI@ CHI: Mapping Grand Challenges for the Conversational User Interface Community. CHI 2020 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Honolulu, USA.

Kocaballi, A. B., Quiroz, J. C., Laranjo, L., Rezazadegan, D., Kocielnik, R., Clark, L., … & Miner, A. (2020, April). Conversational Agents for Health and Wellbeing. CHI 2020 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Honolulu, USA.

Munteanu, C., Clark, L., Cowan, B., Schlögl, S., Torres, M. I., Edwards, J., … & Doyle, P. (2020, March). CUI: Conversational User Interfaces: A Workshop on New Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives for Researching Speech-based Conversational Interactions. IUI 2020 Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Cagliari, Italy.

Clark, L., Cowan, B.R., Edwards, J., Munteanu, C., Murad, C., Aylett, M., Moore, R.K. … Doyle, P. (2019). Mapping Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives for Understanding Speech Interface Interactions. CHI 2019 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Glasgow, UK.

Torre, I., Clark, L. & Cowan, B.R. (2018). Measuring and designing trust in Human-Agent Interaction. 6th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI). Southampton, UK.

Invited Talks

Google Kings Cross London (December 2019). Mind the Gap: Discussing the Role of Humanness in Speech Technology Design.

Why it Matters seminar series at Swansea University (December 2019). Menace of mimicry: how humanlike should our speech technology be?

Dagstuhl seminar series on Conversational Search (November 2019). Conversational User Interfaces.

HCID seminar series at City, University of London (February 2019). The State of Speech in HCI: Trends, Themes & Challenges.

UCLIC Research seminar series at University College London (January 2019).Mapping speech research in HCI: Trends, Themes & Challenges.

School of Computer Science seminar series at the University of Birmingham (November 2018). The State of Speech in HCI: Trends, Themes & Challenges.

HCI @ UCD seminar series at University College Dublin (March 2018). Do we know how computers should talk to us? Exploring the concept of appropriate machinelike communication through linguistic politeness.

Languages and Linguistics Colloquium Series at York St John University. (October 2016). “But it’s just a machine” – exploring language use and voice variation in computer speech.

PhD Thesis

Clark, L. M. H. (2016). Exploring vague language use and voice variation in human-agent interaction. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nottingham).